Chapter

Chicago

Richard Kieckhefer

in Theology in Stone

Published in print April 2004 | ISBN: 9780195154665
Published online July 2005 | e-ISBN: 9780199835676 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0195154665.003.0007
 Chicago

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Chicago: traditional churches in a modern culture. The churches built in Chicago between the great fire of 1871 and the First World War were almost all built in revival styles: the Gothic revival was accepted as the norm in many denominations, while Roman Catholics also built in Romanesque, Renaissance, and other revival styles. Within Roman Catholicism, these styles served as markers of ethnic distinction, but then American Colonial style could be used to counteract the ethnicity of specific national churches. While classic sacramental design was taken for granted in Roman Catholic circles, the altar rail served as a strong boundary between clerical and lay space, and churches were used less for procession than for intercession. In Protestant circles, auditorium churches closely resembling contemporary theaters became prominent, serving for worship in which proclamation was of paramount importance. The high church movement in the Episcopal Church led to churches with extended chancels (in which choirs with choir stalls were placed between the congregation in the nave and the priest at the altar); other denominations sometimes borrowed this design. Orthodox immigrants built in a manner long established in their home countries, with large icon-screens that clearly limited visibility of the altar and served a form of worship largely centered on mediation.

Keywords: revival styles; immigrant religions; intercession; mediation; auditorium churches; proclamation; high church worship

Chapter.  15030 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Christian Theology

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