American Genesis, American Captivity

John Saillant

in Black Puritan, Black Republican

Published in print January 2003 | ISBN: 9780195157178
Published online November 2003 | e-ISBN: 9780199834617 | DOI:

Series: Religion in America

 American Genesis, American Captivity

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A new racism arose in the early American republic that set aside the antislavery arguments of men and women who were, like Lemuel Haynes, rooted in eighteenth‐century modes of thought like Edwardsean theology and republican ideology. Haynes had always argued that blacks and whites must live harmoniously in an integrated society if Americans wished to be true to Calvinism and republicanism. In the early nineteenth century, many Americans became convinced that blacks and whites were so separate cognitively and physically that they could never coexist as equals. Haynes set himself against what he saw as divisive forces, including Universalism, a new Christian denomination led by Hosea Ballou. Haynes invoked as a standard for race relations the godly unity idealized in American Puritanism and expressed in early American texts such as the captivity narrative of Mary Rowlandson. In his last years, Haynes worked as an itinerant preacher but never held a reliable pulpit between his dismissal in 1818 from his Rutland, Vermont, church and his death in 1833 in Granville, Massachusetts.

Keywords: Ballou; captivity narrative; early republic; itinerant preacher; Massachusetts; Puritanism; racism; Rowlandson; Universalism; Vermont

Chapter.  19034 words. 

Subjects: Christianity

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