Leibniz on Consciousness and Self‐Consciousness

Rocco J. Gennaro

in New Essays on the Rationalists

Published in print February 2003 | ISBN: 9780195165418
Published online November 2003 | e-ISBN: 9780199868285 | DOI:
Leibniz on Consciousness and Self‐Consciousness

More Like This

Show all results sharing this subject:

  • History of Western Philosophy


Show Summary Details


“Leibniz on Consciousness and Self‐Consciousness” It is argued that Leibniz held a version of the so‐called “higher‐order thought” (HOT) theory of consciousness. According to this theory, what makes a mental state conscious is that it is accompanied by a thought (or awareness) that one is in that state. For example, in elaborating on his theory of monads, Leibniz explains that an unconscious perception becomes conscious when it is accompanied by an apperception of it. Apperception is best understood as a form of self‐consciousness, and reflection is best understood as a sophisticated form of apperception. With these crucial terminological distinctions in place, it is then argued that treating Leibniz as a HOT theorist can help us understand how he did indeed hold that animals apperceive even if most of them are incapable of sophisticated forms of reflection and rationality.

Keywords: animals; apperception; consciousness; Rocco Gennaro; higher‐order thought; HOT; Leibniz; monads; perception; rationality; reflection; self‐consciousness

Chapter.  9680 words. 

Subjects: History of Western Philosophy

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Buy this work at Oxford University Press »

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.