Chapter

France

Renee Levine Melammed

in A Question of Identity

Published in print October 2004 | ISBN: 9780195170719
Published online April 2005 | e-ISBN: 9780199835416 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0195170717.003.0006
 France

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The options available to the emigrants settling in France were limited since it was a Catholic country that had expelled all of its Jews in the fourteenth century. While some of the kings granted them charters known as Lettres Patentes, the Portuguese merchants who arrived had to maintain the façade of being observant Catholics. Even in the two larger communities, Bayonne and Bordeaux, a bona fide transition to Judaism did not occur until the eighteenth century. Nevertheless, these conversos developed strong ties to other converso communities, especially in the commercial world, and displayed signs of literary creativity that reflected the complexity of the converso identity.

Keywords: France; Lettres Patentes; Portuguese merchants; Bayonne; Bordeaux; assimilation; literary creativity

Chapter.  6213 words. 

Subjects: Judaism and Jewish Studies

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