The Growth of the Hajj

Robert R. Bianchi

in Guests of God

Published in print September 2004 | ISBN: 9780195171075
Published online January 2005 | e-ISBN: 9780199835102 | DOI:
 The Growth of the Hajj

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Geographically and culturally, today’s hajj is nearly universal. The highest rates of hajj activity are still in countries closest to Mecca, but air travel allows Muslims throughout Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas to participate with equal frequency. The strongest predictor of hajj activity is per capita income rather than distance from Mecca or the proportion of Muslims in the national population. Female participation is a special dimension of pilgrimage, demonstrating the enduring power of culture. Hajj growth has been accompanied by a steady rise in the proportion of women pilgrims to about 45% of the total, yet in many countries regional disparities in female pilgrimage reflect virtually separate societies with incompatible views of the value and freedom that women deserve.

Keywords: Hajj activity; female pilgrimage; women pilgrims; Asia; Africa; Europe; Americas; income; air travel; distance

Chapter.  11507 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Islam

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