Chapter

Increasing Pressures on Constantinople and the Widening Gap 1025–1204

J. M. Hussey

in The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire

Published in print August 1990 | ISBN: 9780198264569
Published online April 2004 | e-ISBN: 9780191601170 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0198264569.003.0007

Series: Oxford History of the Christian Church

 Increasing Pressures on Constantinople and the Widening Gap 1025–1204

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Starts by discussing the impending internal and external threats to the Byzantine Empire in 1025–1204, which led in the later Middle Ages to any pre‐eminence in East Mediterranean politics being lost until the Empire was finally submerged into the Muslim Ottoman Empire. The Orthodox Church itself, however, survived this downfall. Sections 2–4 of the chapter discuss the following: the successive patriarchs in the period 1025–81; continuity in the period 1081–1180, when for nearly 100 years three able rulers (Emperors Alexius I Comenus, his son John II Comenus, and grandson Manuel I Comenus) gave an apparent measure of stability to Byzantium; heresy trials during the patriarchates of Cosmas I (1075–81) and Eustratius Garidas (1081–4), who did not themselves take the lead against the philosopher intellectuals, which was rather taken by Emperors Alexius I and Manuel I. The fifth section discusses the dualist heresies and actions taken against them—the Armenian Paulicians, whose essence of belief was that there is a distinction between the two principles of good and evil, with matter regarded as evil so that the fundamental Christian belief in the incarnation and in the sacraments and hierarchy were rejected, and the Bulgarian Bogomilism, which is closely linked to Messalianism. The last section discusses the changing relations of Byzantium (and the Orthodox Church) with the West and the first four crusades (1097–1204).

Keywords: Armenia; Bogomilism; Bulgaria; Byzantium; crusades; dualism; emperors; heresies; heretics; mediaeval history; Messalianism; Orthodox Church; patriarchs; Paulicians

Chapter.  24858 words. 

Subjects: History of Christianity

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