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A History of the Popes 1830-1914

Owen Chadwick

Published in print April 1998 | ISBN: 9780198269229
Published online November 2003 | e-ISBN: 9780191600456 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0198269226.001.0001

Series: Oxford History of the Christian Church

A History of the Popes 1830-1914

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This history of the ninteenth‐century popes covers the papacies of Gregory XVI, Pius IX, Leo XIII and Pius X in their religious and political aspects. The period was dominated by the question of whether the pope could hold political power and the relations of the papacy with the Catholic states of Europe. The major themes of the book are therefore the causes and consequences of the end of the Papal State as an independent power in Italy and the conflicts between the popes and the forces of the Risorgimento, fighting for the unification of Italy under the Piedmontese monarchy. At the same time it discusses the connected challenge of liberal movements in France, Spain and Portugal, and the separate question of the oppression of Catholic Poland by the Russian Empire. It shows how the popes opposed liberalism, democracy, socialism and ’the modern world’ in general, but how this intransigence served to strengthen papal authority among Catholic believers, with mostly unfortunate political consequences. The nuances in the attitude of each individual pope are traced through such major events as the revolutions of 1848, the First Vatican Council, the taking of Rome by Italian nationalists, the Kulturkampf in Germany, and the separation of Church and State in France. Catholic authority became more centralized, demonstrated by the Syllabus of Errors and the doctrine of papal infallibility and the moral demands made by the papacy over such issues as labour relations, marriage and divorce, and religious toleration. Separate chapters discuss the question of religion and national identity in Poland, Spain and Portugal; the fortunes of the religious orders; Catholic universities; the idea of reunion of the Churches; and the making of saints.

Keywords: Curia; ecumenism; First Vatican Council; France, nineteenth‐century history; Gregory XVI; Habsburg Empire, nineteenth‐century history; Italy, nineteenth‐century history; Kulturkampf; Leo XIII; papacy; papal infallibility; Papal States; Pius IX; Pius X; Poland, nineteenth‐century history; Portugal, nineteenth‐century history; religious orders; Revolutions of 1848; Risorgimento; Rome; saints; Spain, nineteenth‐century history; Syllabus of Errors; universities

Book.  624 pages. 

Subjects: History of Christianity

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Table of Contents

Gregory XVI in A History of the Popes 1830-1914

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A Liberal Pope, 1846–1848 in A History of the Popes 1830-1914

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Catholic Power in A History of the Popes 1830-1914

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The Making of Italy in A History of the Popes 1830-1914

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The Need for a Council in A History of the Popes 1830-1914

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The Prisoner of the Vatican in A History of the Popes 1830-1914

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Pope Leo XIII (1878–1903) in A History of the Popes 1830-1914

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Pope Pius X (1903–1914) in A History of the Popes 1830-1914

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Nationality and Religion: Tyrol and Poland in A History of the Popes 1830-1914

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Nationality and Religion: Spain in A History of the Popes 1830-1914

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