Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

in Semi-Presidentialism in Europe

Published in print September 1999 | ISBN: 9780198293866
Published online November 2003 | e-ISBN: 9780191599156 | DOI:

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The office of Icelandic president was created in 1944 to take over the functions of the Danish monarch, which were largely ceremonial at that time, and is non‐party political. Although the president is directly elected, political power in Iceland lies with the parliament and a government that is responsible to it. This chapter explores the actual and potential powers of the Icelandic presidency in the light of Duverger's concept of semi‐presidential government, arguing that traditional interpretations of the Icelandic constitution have overlooked the distinctiveness of semi‐presidential government, and noting that the powerlessness of the presidency is less a fact of law than of politics. An attempt is also made to account for why the presidency has developed in the manner of a powerless figurehead rather than as an effective political leader. The three sections of the chapter are: The Presidency and Political Leadership in Iceland—formation of the regime, constitutional powers, parliamentary majorities; The Presidency and the Political Forces—presidentialism in Iceland, the choice of a president; and Conclusion.

Keywords: constitution; constitutional powers; government; Iceland; parliament; parliamentary majorities; Political Leadership; president; semi‐presidentialism

Chapter.  7488 words. 

Subjects: Comparative Politics

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