Occupying Armies and Civilian Populations in Nineteenth‐Century Europe

Karma Nabulsi

in Traditions of War

Published in print October 1999 | ISBN: 9780198294078
Published online November 2003 | e-ISBN: 9780191599972 | DOI:
 Occupying Armies and Civilian Populations in Nineteenth‐Century Europe

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This is the second of three chapters that set out the differing contexts through which the dilemma in the laws of war over the distinction between lawful and unlawful combatants can be viewed: political and diplomatic (Chapter 1), social (this chapter) and intellectual (Chapter 3). It explores the social history of army occupation and resistance to it in nineteenth century Europe – from the Napoleonic period to the Franco-Prussian war– and places these diplomatic failures in their broader social and political context. In particular it examines the range of army practices under occupation, and the effect that they had on civilian life. The different sections of the chapter discuss: pillaging, looting, requisitions and billeting; reprisals; hostage-taking; types of civilian behaviour –obedience to the occupier, political and armed acts of resistance, organized acts of resistance –guerrillas and franc-tireurs; levee en masse and other assorted insurrections; ideologies of resistance; religion as a source of resistance; and the influence of nationalism and patriotism.

Keywords: army occupation; army practices; billeting; civilian behaviour; civilian life; Europe; history; hostage-taking; insurrections; lawful combatants; laws of war; looting; military occupation; nationalism; patriotism; pillaging; political history; religion; reprisals; requisitioning; resistance; social history; unlawful combatants

Chapter.  20721 words. 

Subjects: International Relations

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