The Value of Synchronic Justification

Richard Swinburne

in Epistemic Justification

Published in print June 2001 | ISBN: 9780199243792
Published online November 2003 | e-ISBN: 9780191598524 | DOI:
 The Value of Synchronic Justification

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A belief being synchronically justified because it is based on adequate grounds may be understood in many senses. These vary from a pure internalist sense in which the grounds of a belief are other beliefs, their adequacy is their rendering that belief probable in some inductive sense, and ‘based on’ is understood as ‘believed to be caused by’ to some pure externalist sense. On a pure externalist theory, ‘based’ is ‘caused’, grounds are any cause, and adequacy is (normally) a matter of the token belief being produced by a process of a reliable type. In almost all of these senses, it is logically probable that a justified belief will be true; and, because truth is valuable, so is justified belief. But only in internalist senses can the believer have access to the fact that his belief is justified; and internalist justification of one kind is valuable for intrinsic reasons and also because it is indicative of truth.

Keywords: externalism; externalist justification; internalism; internalist justification; justification; synchronic justification

Chapter.  6321 words. 

Subjects: Metaphysics

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