The Christological debate between 449 and 451 was marked by continuing divisions in the east and became embroiled with the question of the authority of Rome. The anti‐Nestorian position won the sympathy of the eastern emperor Theodosius II and then of Pulcheria, the dominant figure in the reunited empire in 450–51. The second Council of Ephesus in 449 was marked by the intervention and assertion of Roman supremacy by Pope Leo I. In the divided eastern churches, the controversy was crucial in defining the legitimacy of the ordination of bishops, especially Nestorian or Monophysite bishops in Alexandria. The canons produced by the Council of Chalcedon in 451 and the question of their legitimacy contributed to the alienation between east and west and to divisions among the Greek churches for more than a century afterwards.
Keywords: Alexandria; Antioch; Christological debate; Constantinople; Council of Chalcedon; Monophysites; papacy; Pulcheria; Rome
Chapter. 15982 words.
Subjects: History of Christianity
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