Co‐optive or Effective Inclusion? Movement Aims and State Imperatives

John S. Dryzek, David Downes, Christian Hunold, David Schlosberg and Hans‐Kristian Hernes

in Green States and Social Movements

Published in print February 2003 | ISBN: 9780199249022
Published online November 2003 | e-ISBN: 9780191599095 | DOI:
 Co‐optive or Effective Inclusion? Movement Aims and State Imperatives

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Sometimes the inclusion of the environmental movement in the state that has occurred has been genuine, and sometimes it has involved co‐option, i.e. access without real influence. We argue that inclusion can be genuine when the movement's defining interest can be attached to one of the core state imperatives; this explains why the US alone could prove such an environmental success story around 1970. Later in the 1970s, energy crisis meant that environmentalism was kept away from the state's core in all four countries, though there was substantial variation in how this was played out. More recent history reveals environmentalism generally kept away from the core, though there are exceptions (especially in Norway and, later, Germany).

Keywords: co‐option; energy crisis; environmentalism; Germany; inclusion; Norway; state imperatives; USA

Chapter.  11413 words. 

Subjects: Environment

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