The Perils of Political Inclusion: Moderation and Bureaucratization

John S. Dryzek, David Downes, Christian Hunold, David Schlosberg and Hans‐Kristian Hernes

in Green States and Social Movements

Published in print February 2003 | ISBN: 9780199249022
Published online November 2003 | e-ISBN: 9780191599095 | DOI:
 The Perils of Political Inclusion: Moderation and Bureaucratization

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This chapter looks at the implications of inclusion in the state for the movement itself, especially in terms of moderation and bureaucratization. Groups themselves can change in two ways as a result of being included within the state. First, they may have to moderate their positions substantially in order to be more consistent with the political mainstream—especially as conditioned by state imperatives. Second, they may have to develop a much more professional and bureaucratic character, replete with a large full‐time staff, internal hierarchy, and division of labour, and specialists in fund‐raising, organizational maintenance, and management. Moderation and bureaucratization compromise the ‘social movement’ character of environmental groups. Developments in the US, UK, Germany, and Norway are documented, and comparisons are made across time and space in their character and degree, and the possibility of movement resistance to them are considered.

Keywords: bureaucratization; Germany; inclusion; moderation; Norway; resistance; social movement; state imperatives; UK; USA

Chapter.  10007 words. 

Subjects: Environment

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