Maria Kousis

in Environmental Protest in Western Europe

Published in print December 2003 | ISBN: 9780199252060
Published online April 2004 | e-ISBN: 9780191601064 | DOI:

Series: Comparative Politics


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Analysis of 579 environmental protest events in Greece, reported in Eleftherotypia during 1988–97, showed an uneven decline of protest during the decade, an overrepresentation of urban environmental claims, and the prominence of nature conservation, pollution, urban, and industrial claims made by both formal and informal environmental groups. Claims involving the health effects of environmental degradation declined, due to a steeper reduction in the reported incidence of grassroots environmental activism. In general, there was limited variation in the tactics used, with conventional protest predominating, followed by confrontation and demonstrations, and rarely by violence. Community activists tended to opt more often for confrontational or violent actions than did formal NGOs. The observed patterns are influenced by the changing political and economic opportunity structure associated with economic liberalization, the pattern of newspaper coverage, and the organization of social space.

Keywords: community activists; confrontation; economic liberalization; environmental activists; environmental protest; grassroots environmental activism; Greece; NGOs; opportunity structure; violence

Chapter.  9670 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Comparative Politics

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