Properties, Modes, and Universals

E. J. Lowe

in The Four-Category Ontology

Published in print December 2005 | ISBN: 9780199254392
Published online May 2006 | e-ISBN: 9780191603600 | DOI:
 Properties, Modes, and Universals

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The distinction between properties and predicates, and how best to draw the distinction between universals and particulars are discussed. The notion that properties are most aptly characterized as ‘ways of being’ is defended. The need to distinguish between the formal ontological relations of instantiation and characterization is emphasized, as well as the need to distinguish both from that of exemplification. The advantages of immanent realism concerning universals over both transcendent realism and pure trope theory are explained, and two different notions of immanence are compared.

Keywords: characterization; exemplification; immanent realism; instantiation; predicates; properties; transcendent realism; tropes; universals

Chapter.  7510 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Metaphysics

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