The Mixed‐Member Proportional System and Its Consequences in Bolivia

René Antonio Mayorga

in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems

Published in print February 2003 | ISBN: 9780199257683
Published online November 2003 | e-ISBN: 9780191600241 | DOI:

Series: Comparative Politics

 The Mixed‐Member Proportional System and Its Consequences in Bolivia

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Bolivia's mixed‐member proportional (MMP) electoral system was only established in 1994 and was applied for the first time in the elections of June 1997, so it is not yet possible to make a definitive assessment of its impact on the country's political system. The chapter therefore discusses the specific immediate effects that implementation of the system has had. The first section focuses on the effects on the representation of parties and the structure of the party system (interparty and intraparty dimensions) and on the relations between single‐seat district (SSD) deputies and constituents, and the second section focuses on governance. The overall finding is that the MMP system has had no far‐reaching consequences on the government system, but has had some noteworthy consequences for the party system. Some political leaders in both governing and opposition parties are not, however, satisfied with either the degree of personalization of Bolivian politics or the role of SSD deputies, and have highlighted the need for further electoral reforms; this issue is discussed in the third section.

Keywords: Bolivia; electoral reform; electoral systems; governance; interparty dimension; intraparty dimension; mixed‐member electoral systems; mixed‐member proportional systems; party system; personalization; representation; single‐seat district deputies; single‐seat districts

Chapter.  6012 words. 

Subjects: Comparative Politics

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