Chapter

<b>The Protection‐Pull Factors: Multiple Pathways to Early Exit</b>

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print July 2006 | ISBN: 9780199286119
Published online September 2006 | e-ISBN: 9780191604089 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0199286116.003.0005
 The Protection‐Pull Factors: Multiple Pathways to Early Exit

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There are multiple pathways to early exit from work: early pensions (retirement age before 65), flexible and partial pensions, special preretirement schemes, long-term unemployment benefits, and disability pensions. Early exit from work often emerged as an unintended consequence of progressive social policies. But once institutionalized, these exit pathways were difficult to reform, particularly in Continental European welfare states. In contrast, fewer and less generous pathways exist in Scandinavia, Anglophone economies, and Japan.

Keywords: early retirement; public policies; pensions; retirement age; disability insurance; unemployment benefits; pathways

Chapter.  16124 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Comparative Politics

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