Chapter

Regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone in sepsis

Richard G. Bogle and Patrick Vallance

in The Pharmacology of Vascular Smooth Muscle

Published in print February 1996 | ISBN: 9780192623874
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191724671 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192623874.003.0017
Regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone in sepsis

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Clinical features of septic shock include a gradual fall in mean arterial blood pressure with peripheral arteriolar vasodilatation. There is a hyperdynamic state with low systemic vascular resistance, high cardiac output, hypotension, and inadequate tissue perfusion. Reduced flow to metabolically active tissues leads to lactic acidosis, and oxygen delivery and/or cellular oxygen utilization are often impaired. The major histopathological findings are cell necrosis, tissue haemorrhage, oedema, and fibrin deposits. Within the vasculature there is global loss of cardiovascular control with regional vasodilatation and vasoconstriction although the net effect is a fall in overall vascular resistance. This chapter focuses on the pharmacology of changes in vascular tone in septic shock and the acute and chronic effects of endotoxin and certain cytokines in mediating these changes.

Keywords: vascular smooth muscle tone; sepsis; endotoxin; cytokines; arteriolar vasodilatation; tissue haemorrhage

Chapter.  7058 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neuroscience

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