List and Marx in Russia

Roman Szporluk

in Communism and Nationalism

Published in print November 1993 | ISBN: 9780195051032
Published online October 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780199854417 | DOI:
List and Marx in Russia

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The chapter shows why nationalism was not the ideology of industrialization in Russia and why Marxism won out there instead. The interaction between nationalism and Marxism is best explained by two facts. First, Russia became a multinational empire before a modern Russia national identity was formed. Second, the state played an important role. List's program gave way to the formation of a modern Russian nation. It provided a solid basis for Russia's future. List recommended legal and political reforms while Witte left out references to List's liberalism. Witte isolated the economic factors of industrial growth. Thus, his program suffered. His program was undemocratic and thus he was not supported by the Russian population. Marxism, on the other hand, created the framework for the intelligentsia to argue Russia's condition and plan its future. Russia was ready and ripe economically, socially, and politically and it was receptive to Marxism.

Keywords: nationalism; industrialization; Marxism; multinational empire; modern Russian nation; List's liberalism; intelligentsia

Chapter.  8357 words. 

Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945)

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