Vectorcardiographic Lead Systems

Jaakko Malmivuo

in Bioelectromagnetism

Published in print October 1995 | ISBN: 9780195058239
Published online March 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199847839 | DOI:
Vectorcardiographic Lead Systems

Show Summary Details


This chapter introduces representative examples of the large number of uncorrected and corrected vectorcardiographic lead systems. Most of the uncorrected and corrected vectorcardiographic lead systems are based on the rectangular body axes. After inventing the central terminal in 1932, Frank Norman Wilson logically progressed to the development of a lead system for vectorcardiography. Wilson and his co-workers published a lead system that added to the Einthoven limb leads an electrode located on the back (about 2.5 cm to the left from the seventh dorsal vertebra). The four electrodes formed the corners of a tetrahedron and consequently permitted the back-to-front component of the heart vector to be recognized.

Keywords: vectorcardiographic lead systems; electrode; tetrahedron; heart vector; back-to-front component; homogeneities

Chapter.  6354 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neuroscience

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Buy this work at Oxford University Press »

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.