Chapter

Hippocampus and Human Disease

Walker Matthew, Chan Dennis and Thom Maria

in The Hippocampus Book

Published in print December 2006 | ISBN: 9780195100273
Published online May 2009 | e-ISBN: 9780199864133 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195100273.003.0016

Series: Oxford Neuroscience Series

Hippocampus and Human Disease

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This chapter focuses on two disorders in which the role of the hippocampus has been extensively investigated: Alzheimer's disease and temporal lobe epilepsy. Although in Alzheimer's disease the disease eventually results in widespread destruction of the cerebral cortex, the damage in the earliest stages of disease is restricted to the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus, and the memory impairment that results from this disruption of the hippocampal formation represents one of the common characteristics of early onset Alzheimer's disease. In temporal lobe epilepsy, the pathological damage is often restricted to the hippocampus in the form of hippocampal sclerosis. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, in which the hippocampal damage is secondary to the underlying pathological process, the hippocampus in temporal lobe epilepsy is not only sensitive to damage by seizure activity but can also act as the substrate for epileptic seizure generation.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; temporal lobe epilepsy; pathological damage; hippocampal pathology; entorhinal cortex; memory impairment; hippocampal sclerosis

Chapter.  34425 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neuroscience

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