This chapter discusses renewal and reform in the Muslim world during the 18th and 19th centuries. These movements had distinctive characteristics, which made them effective in the conditions of the time. By the end of the 19th century, however, both local and global conditions had been transformed. The desire for renewal in Muslim societies did not end, but the effective ways of manifesting that aspiration changed. The beginning of the 20th century marked the end of one great era in the history of movements of renewal and reform and the beginning of another.
Keywords: Islam; Islamic renewal; Islamic reform; Muslims
Chapter. 16621 words. Illustrated.
Subjects: Society and Culture ; Islam
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