This chapter explores the effect of prenatal smoking on cognitive and behavioral outcomes in children. These effects are examined in both adopted and non-adopted children in order to evaluate the extent to which smoking during pregnancy may affect general and specific cognitive abilities, personality characteristics, and childhood behavioral problems at twelve years of age. A comparison of effects between adopted children (separated from their birth mothers shortly after birth) and non-adopted children (raised by their birth mothers) is made, along with an investigation of characteristics of mothers who did and did not smoke during pregnancy. The chapter also examines the extent to which maternal characteristics (such as education and cognitive ability) may explain any adverse child outcomes in the smoking groups.
Keywords: prenatal smoking; adopted children; non-adopted children; cognitive ability; behavioral problems; personality; pregnancy; education
Chapter. 6171 words.
Subjects: Developmental Psychology
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