School Victimization Embedded in Context: A Heuristic Model

Rami Benbenishty and Ron Avi Astor

in School Violence in Context

Published in print March 2005 | ISBN: 9780195157802
Published online January 2009 | e-ISBN: 9780199864393 | DOI:
 School Victimization Embedded in Context: A Heuristic Model

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This chapter presents a socio-ecological model of school violence in context. The model emphasizes the importance of the school as the context of violence. The model includes multiple different types of violence including verbal, physical, and sexual. The chapter clarifies the conceptual differences between bullying and school violence. According to the model, schools are embedded within social-ecological nested contexts. External nested contexts include culture and ethnicity, neighborhood (e.g., poverty and crime), and the family (e.g., parental practices). The internal context of the school includes structural characteristics such as size, awareness of violence, policies, student-teacher relationships, students participation, and dangerous locations and times. Victimization is the result of an interaction between the student characteristics (such as age and gender), the outside context (e.g., family poverty), and the school's internal context (e.g., adult supervision). The comprehensive theory of school violence includes the multiple perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and parents, and encompasses how victimization relates to the emotional, cognitive, and social domains.

Keywords: school violence; bullying; school context; ecological model; culture; community; family; age; gender; multiple perspectives

Chapter.  8340 words.  Illustrated.

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