Chapter

Philosophical Theories

Paul F. A. Bartha

in By Parallel Reasoning

Published in print February 2010 | ISBN: 9780195325539
Published online May 2010 | e-ISBN: 9780199776313 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325539.003.0002
Philosophical Theories

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This chapter discusses attempts by Aristotle, Hesse, Mill and others to deal with two problems: (1) finding criteria for evaluating analogical arguments, and (2) providing some form of philosophical justification. As regards the first problem, we can identify a valuable “commonsense” model in Hesse's work, though one that is capable of refinement. As regards the second problem, it is argued that most analyses to date have unsuccessfully cast the analogical argument as an incomplete form of deductive argument, as some type of sampling argument, or as induction by enumeration. Agassi's skeptical rejection of all analogical reasoning is criticized because it too misrepresents the logical structure of the argument form.

Keywords: Agassi; Aristotle; Hesse; Mill; deductive; sampling; enumerative induction

Chapter.  10908 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic

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