“A Sword in One Hand & Money in the Other”

Philip J. Stern

in The Company-State

Published in print April 2011 | ISBN: 9780195393736
Published online September 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780199896837 | DOI:
“A Sword in One Hand & Money in the Other”

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This chapter argues that through the early eighteenth century, the Company continued to apply ideas and policies established in the previous century; however, retrained on new objects, these attitudes subtly began to shape the foundations for a Company empire in India. As Anglo-American piracy was eliminated by the 1720s, the political, legal, and marital regime the Company had established to confront it was retrained on Asian maritime rivals, most notably the Maratha tributary Kanhoji Angre, or Angria, and the so-called Muscat Arabs, or Qawasim, from the Arabian Coast. The old crime of interloping was increasingly applied to a much broader field, now clearly including Scottish and Irish subjects and even new European rivals, such as the Ostend and Swedish East India Companies. Competition with the Dutch and the Portuguese gave way to war and rivalry with the French, while the Company’s longstanding desire for a Mughal farman to confirm its rights and authority in India culminated in the embassy of John Surman to the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar in 1717. Each of these new circumstances, though rooted in the past, would ultimately come to play a significant role in conditioning the territorial expansion of Company power by the mid-eighteenth century.

Keywords: Kanhoji Angria; Qawasim; piracy; Ostend Company; Swedish East India Company; French East India Company; John Surman; Farrukhsiyar; farman

Chapter.  10708 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)

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