Recently, medicine began moving to more informed healthcare management and medical treatment guided by diagnostics, termed, theranostics. In the last decade, the search for markers for disease subtypes and more personalized treatment responses has been accelerated by academic researchers and pharmaceutical companies. Currently used high-throughput genome-wide methodology is resulting in a shift to a hypothesis-free approach to identify appropriate genes. This, in turn, has resulted in the identification of a multitude of biomarker candidates that explain a small fraction of patients’ variations in drug response therapy or disease clinical course. These research initiatives need to be followed by functional studies to determine the molecular mode of action and clinical utility of these markers. Here, the status of identification of biomarkers for diagnosis, disease course, treatment response, and related factors involved in development and response to treatment for multiple sclerosis are reviewed.
Keywords: Multiple sclerosis; biomarkers; pharmacogenetics; theranostics; interferon beta; GWAS; microarray
Chapter. 23478 words.
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