Arvind Sharma

in Modern Hindu Thought

Published in print December 2005 | ISBN: 9780195676389
Published online October 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199081974 | DOI:

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The concept of moksa differs in classical and modern Hinduism. In the former, moksa is said to be essentially one of individual liberation. It is the individual jiva who passes beyond the realm of māyā and transcends samsārā, beyond the pale of rebirth. A jiva could attain moksa, leaving the samsara in place. There are some exceptions: exceptional souls, even after liberation, may return as incarnations rather than reincarnations to help others along. In modern Hinduism, the concept of moksa tends to be less self-centred. Mahatma Gandhi asserts that his uniform experience has convinced him that there is no other God than truth, and that he wants to achieve ‘self-realisation, to see God face to face, to attain moksa’. According to Madhva's school, the state of liberation is of four kinds: sālokya, sāmipya, sārūpya, and sāyujya.

Keywords: moksa; Hinduism; liberation; jiva; samsārā; Mahatma Gandhi; sālokya; sāmipya; sārūpya; sāyujya

Chapter.  1624 words. 

Subjects: Hinduism

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