Baldev Raj Nayar

in The Geopolitics of Globalization

Published in print December 2007 | ISBN: 9780195693034
Published online October 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199081783 | DOI:

Series: Oxford India Paperbacks


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Pakistan has experienced three major military coups d’éétat (1958, 1977, 1999), and has been ruled by the military on three different occasions (1958–1971, 1977–1988, 1999–). Even when it has been under civilian rule, the military has remained in control of government. Moreover, the civilian bureaucracy and the key institutions of society have been purposely penetrated by the military and its intelligence services. Whereas a major divide exists in India in the post-Independence years, Pakistan has alternated/oscillated between a low and a high growth rate, at least over the first five of the six different periods. Geopolitics and national security have strongly influenced the outcome. This chapter discusses military rule, alliances, and economic development in Pakistan as well as the role of Islam in the country. The author goes on to discuss Pakistan’s relations with the United States and how geopolitics has played a pre-eminent role in its economic development. It also examines the nature and consequences of foreign aid to Pakistan.

Keywords: Pakistan’s economic development; geopolitical alliances; economic development; religion; military rule; foreign aid; national security; Pakistan and globalization; United States

Chapter.  7972 words. 

Subjects: Political Economy

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