in Building a World-Class Civil Service for Twenty-First Century India

Published in print September 2010 | ISBN: 9780198068662
Published online October 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199080465 | DOI:

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India needs to change the orientation of its civil service from process to results. In this context, results refer to the ability to acquire resources and use them in the most efficient manner to achieve the desired outputs and outcome goals. The approaches taken by various countries to achieve results-orientation can be categorized into an input focus, an output focus, and an outcome focus. Inputs (for example, financial resources and manpower) are the resources used to produce outputs and outcomes, while outcomes are the key results desired by the government. Outputs are goods and services provided by government departments for the citizens in order to achieve outcomes. Results-orientation thus involves three issues: what the government wants to achieve (outcomes), how it wants to achieve those achievements (outputs), and how it knows if it is succeeding (indicators). This chapter discusses India’s experience with results-orientation, focusing on outcome budgeting.

Keywords: results; results-orientation; inputs; outputs–outcomes framework; indicators; outcome budgeting

Chapter.  5789 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Indian Politics

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