Chapter

Transition to Colonialism

Tirthankar Roy

in The Economic History of India, 1857-1947

Third edition

Published in print December 2011 | ISBN: 9780198074175
Published online January 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780199082148 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198074175.003.0002
Transition to Colonialism

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The eighteenth century was a period of transition for India. A new economy emerged based on peasant exports and global industrial enterprise. Globalization and colonialism penetrated almost every aspect of the Indian economy. Export-oriented enterprise moved from the littoral to the interior, from the handicrafts to the peasants, and from merchants and bankers whose interests had been tied to bankrupt princes to those that were more closely associated with the new forms of commerce and industry. This chapter first describes India's economic conditions c. 1750, focusing on landed property, transformation of property rights in the eighteenth century, and land revenue in pre-colonial India. It then looks at rural and urban industries, foreign trade, and the consequences of institutional reforms for tax, tenancy, and land markets.

Keywords: India; colonialism; globalization; exports; commerce; landed property; property rights; land revenue; foreign trade; industries

Chapter.  33877 words.  Illustrated.

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