This chapter examines the differences between the official ideology and ideology from below of the British Labour Party and the German Social Democratic Party (SPD). It re-evaluates arguments about the basic difference between the official ideology of labourism and Marxism, and the ideology of the rank and file members of both parties. It also analyses the symbolism of the parties' festival culture from accounts of oral history and from popular novels and party literature.
Keywords: party ideology; Labour Party; Great Britain; SPD; Germany; labourism; Marxism; festival culture
Chapter. 15119 words.
Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945)
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