The Transformations of the Ninth Century

T. M. Charles-Edwards

in Wales and the Britons, 350-1064

Published in print November 2012 | ISBN: 9780198217312
Published online January 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780191744778 | DOI:

Series: History of Wales

The Transformations of the Ninth Century

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  • Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500)


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The chapter deals with two major changes: the first was in Gwynedd, where a new dynasty took power in the person of Merfyn Frych, a dynasty that derived from the Isle of Man and would endure until 1282–3; the second was the change from an England of several kingdoms to an England of one. Although the second was primarily part of English history, the Welsh were involved at several points and the consequences were crucial for Welsh as well as for English history. Before this change, a Wales of several kingdoms faced an England of several kingdoms; after this change, the English kingdom came to encompass the whole English people, something which never happened in Wales. The reign of Alfred saw, in the 880s, a policy towards the Welsh different from any that preceded it or any followed by his successors.

Keywords: Merfyn Frych; Merfynion; the Isle of Man; Alfred; Mercia; Wessex

Chapter.  16743 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500)

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