Chapter

Types of Determinism

J. R. LUCAS

in The Freedom of the Will

Published in print September 1970 | ISBN: 9780198243434
Published online October 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780191680687 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198243434.003.0012
Types of Determinism

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Four sorts of determinism have at various times been put forward, and have been felt to threaten the freedom of the will and human responsibility. They are: logical determinism, theological determinism, psychological determinism, and physical determinism. Logical determinism maintains that the future is already fixed as unalterably as the past. Theological determinism argues that since God is omniscient, He knows everything, the future included. Psychological determinism maintains that there are certain psychological laws which we are beginning to discover, enabling us to predict, usually on the basis of his experiences in early infancy, how a man will respond to different situations throughout his later life. Physical determinism is based on there being physical laws of nature, many of which have actually been discovered, and of whose truth we can reasonably hope to be quite certain, together with the claim that all other features of the world are dependent on physical factors.

Keywords: logical determinism; theological determinism; psychological determinism; physical determinism; freedom; will; responsibility

Chapter.  694 words. 

Subjects: Metaphysics

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