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The figure of Peter gave rise to much apocryphal literature. The Acts and Passion of Peter appear in various forms and in various languages. The cycle of Pseudo‐Clementine literature and the Preaching of Peter represent other traditions concerning Peter (and these are dealt with elsewhere in this volume). Ancient testimony to the existence of episodes known from the Acts of Peter includes possible references in Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and the Didascalia, but these make no concrete reference to the written Acts, only to traditions about Peter. Literary references are therefore not certain before the time of Eusebius who in HE 3. 3. 2 declares the Acts of Peter to be heretical (Schwartz, GCS 9.1, pp. 188 f.). By the end of the fourth century Philaster of Brescia, haer. 88, speaks of the use of these Acts among Manichaeans and other heretics (ed. F. Marx CSEL 38 (Vienna, Prague, Leipzig, 1898), pp. 47 f.). The Gelasian Decree condemns the Acts.
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