The Monuments of Civilians

Nigel Saul

in English Church Monuments in the Middle Ages

Published in print February 2009 | ISBN: 9780199215980
Published online May 2009 | e-ISBN: 9780191710001 | DOI:
 The Monuments of Civilians

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Effigial monuments of civilians made their appearance nearly half- or three-quarters of a century after the earliest knightly effigies. It is difficult to be certain about the dissemination of the civilian effigial type because of the heavy rate of loss in the urban churches in which these effigies are like to have been predominant. In the first half of the 14th century, many of those commemorated by civilian effigies in rural churches appear to have been substantial local administrators and estate officials, men with legal experience. In the post Black Death period, when civilians were commonly commemorated by brasses, the patron class widened to take in lesser administrators, household officials and demesne lessees.

Keywords: effigial; lawyers; losses; demesne lessees; Black Death

Chapter.  14104 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: History of Religion

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