Underpinnings: antagonisms and allegiances

Normal Housley

in Crusading and the Ottoman Threat, 1453-1505

Published in print December 2012 | ISBN: 9780199227051
Published online January 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780191746031 | DOI:
Underpinnings: antagonisms and allegiances

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  • Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500)


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The promotion of a crusade against the Ottoman Turks hinged on important formulations of hostility and association in east and west. First and foremost there was the creation of an image of the enemy (imago turci) which combined traditional anti-Islamic topoi (assumed inimicality, desecration of shrines, and brutal mistreatment of Christians) with essentially novel ideas (hatred for learning and civilised ways). The reorientation of crusading towards the defence of Europe naturally raised large questions about the place of Jerusalem and the involvement of the Orthodox in crusade projects. Within Christendom, the major areas of debate and tension were first the relationship between the frontline (antemurale) states and the interior, and secondly the role of the papacy as the primary sponsor and authority in crusading matters.

Keywords: Turks; Constantinople; Europe; Jerusalem; Orthodox church; Renaissance papacy; Renaissance Europe; Hungary; Venice; conciliarism

Chapter.  24572 words. 

Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500)

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