Fragmented Parties in Zambia and Kenya

Adrienne LeBas

in From Protest to Parties

Published in print April 2011 | ISBN: 9780199546862
Published online September 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780191728594 | DOI:
Fragmented Parties in Zambia and Kenya

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Chapter 8 examines opposition party development after the transition to multiparty politics in Zambia and Kenya. In Zambia, the mobilizing structures provided by labor allowed the opposition Movement for Multiparty Democracy to win the founding elections in 1991 by a large margin. In Kenya, on the other hand, opposition parties struggled to solve internal disagreements and mobilize constituencies across the lines of ethnicity and region. The opposition Forum for the Restoration of Democracy split prior to founding elections, leading to the fragmentation of the protest vote on ethnic lines. Up until 2002, the Kenyan ruling party was able to retain office due to opposition fragmentation. Despite these initial differences in opposition success, party systems in both countries have been characterized by high levels of fragmentation and volatility. This chapter argues that these political outcomes can partly be explained by weak party structures and personalized party decision-making in both countries.

Keywords: Party fragmentation; party systems; party organization; state-sponsored violence; elections; Zambia; Kenya; Movement for Multiparty Democracy; MMD; Kenya African National Union; KANU

Chapter.  14534 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Politics

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