Chapter

The use of value of information methods in the design and evaluation of clinical trials

Andrew R. Willan

in Economic Evaluation in Child Health

Published in print October 2009 | ISBN: 9780199547494
Published online February 2010 | e-ISBN: 9780191720055 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547494.003.05
 The use of value of information methods in the design and evaluation of clinical trials

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This chapter illustrates the use of value of information methods in determining sample size for pediatric clinical trials and for summarizing trial results, underscoring the particular advantage these methods have for rare diseases in pediatrics. Based on incremental net benefit, a model for developing value of information methods is given. Solutions based on decision theory for determining optimal sample size under various assumptions are also presented. There then follows two examples illustrating the methods using data from pediatric trials — the first related to the use of calf lung surfactant in patients with pediatric acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and the second examining postoperative purulent otorrhea. The advantages of value of information methods are summarized in the last section.

Keywords: value of information; sample size; clinical trials; net benefit; decision theory

Chapter.  8195 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

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