International Pressures on Developing Countries

Carolyn Deere

in The Implementation Game

Published in print October 2008 | ISBN: 9780199550616
Published online May 2009 | e-ISBN: 9780191720284 | DOI:
International Pressures on Developing Countries

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Chapter 5 explores how international pressures on developing countries contributed to variation in TRIPS implementation, describing the kinds of power at play, the players involved, and the tools they deployed. Trade threats and new trade deals served as vehicles for economic power. Alongside, ideational power was asserted through efforts to shape political environment for TRIPS implementation. The chapter shows that there were ‘compliance‐plus’ pressures from the pro‐IP team, and countervailing pro‐development pressures. These included competing efforts to dominate the framing and discourse of global IP debates through monitoring initiatives, research, support for knowledge communities, and media campaigns. Capacity‐building also had a decisive impact on developing country actions and combined both kinds of power. The chapter highlights that the intensity and focus of international pressures varied by country, as did the timing. Even after developing countries had drafted and implemented TRIPS‐related reforms, many faced pressures to repeal, modify, or strengthen their IP laws. They also faced pressures regarding the administration and enforcement of laws, particularly where these related to the practical use of TRIPS flexibilities.

Keywords: power; international pressure; free trade agreements; sanctions; trade disputes; monitoring; framing; capacity building; media; ideational; competition; TRIPS‐plus

Chapter.  20581 words. 

Subjects: International Relations

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