Chapter

SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND Z-CONTRAST

JOHN C. H. SPENCE

in High-Resolution Electron Microscopy

Third edition

Published in print October 2008 | ISBN: 9780199552757
Published online January 2010 | e-ISBN: 9780191708664 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552757.003.0008

Series: Monographs on the Physics and Chemistry of Materials

 SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND Z-CONTRAST

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This chapter first reviews the relationship (by reciprocity) between transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), with a brief history of STEM. The form of the coherent convergent beam patterns used to form bright and dark-field STEM images are discussed in detail, together with experimental examples of the fringes formed between overlapping orders (ronchigrams). The role of partial coherence theory in STEM is outlined. The theory of incoherent dark-field stem with a high angle annular detector is given and its advantages reviewed. Channelling effects and channelling theory are presented. The optimum detector dimensions are analysed and the interpretation of STEM images in its many modes is discussed.

Keywords: STEM; ronchigrams; partial coherence; detector cutoff; incoherent imaging theory; dark-field STEM

Chapter.  11407 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics

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