Chapter

Essenes beside the Dead Sea: Qumran

Joan E. Taylor

in The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea

Published in print November 2012 | ISBN: 9780199554485
Published online January 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780191745911 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199554485.003.0010
Essenes beside the Dead Sea: Qumran

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The archaeology of Qumran coheres with the general history established by literary evidence. Established by Alexander Jannaeus as a way-station, the site was developed by Herod the Great after 31 bce. This development is linked with the building of a villa at Ein Feshkha, in a valuable oasis with natural spring-fed pools. Qumran and Ein Feshkha may be seen together as Essenes establishments, in land gifted to the Essenes for their use within royal lands. The settlements continued, despite a Roman attack in 68 ce, and were occupied until c.115 ce, when an earthquake wrecked particular damage on the marl plateau on which Qumran was located. The buildings might yet have been occupied for transient encampment until 135 ce, the definitive date after which no further Jewish settlement is evidenced.

Keywords: Essenes; Alexander Jannaeus; archaeology of Qumran; Ein Feshkha; Herod the Great; earthquake; Second Revolt

Chapter.  14517 words. 

Subjects: Judaism and Jewish Studies

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