Chapter

Environmental Taxes and ETRs in Europe: The Current Situation and a Review of the Modelling Literature

Stefan Speck, Philip Summerton, Daniel Lee and Kirsten Wiebe

in Environmental Tax Reform (ETR)

Published in print April 2011 | ISBN: 9780199584505
Published online May 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780191725012 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199584505.003.0005

Series: Creating Sustainable Growth In Europe

Environmental Taxes and ETRs in Europe: The Current Situation and a Review of the Modelling Literature

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ETRs have been implemented in several of the old EU member states, such as Denmark, Germany, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK. This chapter very briefly identifies the key characteristics of these green tax reform packages, with a special focus on Germany and the UK. Recent years have seen a growth in support for ETRs in the new EU member states, with Estonia and the Czech Republic introducing this policy instrument, and the chapter discusses the prospects for ETR in new EU member states, with a focus on the Estonian ETR, highlighting some differences in the overall revenue structure between old and new EU member states. The chapter then reviews the theoretical literature on ETR and the ‘double dividend’ hypothesis, before moving on to a review of the empirical modelling literature that assesses the effects of the ETRs on the environment and the economy through estimates of changes in emissions, sectoral effects, such as changes in output, employment, and trade, and macroeconomic variables, such as GDP and total employment.

Keywords: ETR; double-dividend hypothesis; modelling literature; macroeconomic variable; GDP; employment

Chapter.  13312 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics

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