The Origins of Ibâḍism

John C. Wilkinson

in Ibâḍism

Published in print September 2010 | ISBN: 9780199588268
Published online January 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780191595400 | DOI:

Series: Oxford Oriental Monographs

The Origins of Ibâḍism

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This chapter examines Khâriji/Muhakkima beginnings, their adherence to the absolute authority of the Qur'ân, and the subsidiary role of the Prophet's sunna. All the early secessionists came from Kûfan Nizâri splinter groups and involved no Yaman tribes, either from Kûfa or Basra. The Ibâḍis recognize a true line of revolts down to the Tamîmi Abû Bilal (61/680), but no other until their own, sixty-seven years later. The characteristics of these early secessionists are examined. The Khawârij who went to Ibn Zubayr in 64, including the mysterious Ibn Ibâḍ, were Tamîm or Hanîfa (Nizâr) and the failure of their mission resulted in a split, represented as between the extremist Azâriqa and moderate Ibâḍis, with the Sufris somewhere between. This model does not stand up to examination. The non-Azâriqa were essentially divided between qu'ûd and shirâ' (quietists and activists), split ideologically over relations with other Muslims, maintaining unity, and when to secede (khurûj). The Sufris activated earlier than the Ibâḍis because they operated amongst the Iraqi Nizar tribes, and were first in North Africa. It was not dogma but the tribal domain that made Sufris and Ibâḍis rivals.

Keywords: Khawârij; Muhakkima; qu'ûd; shirâ'; Ibn Zubayr; Azâriqa; Sufris; Ibâḍis

Chapter.  19020 words. 

Subjects: Islam

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