David M. Armstrong

in Sketch for a Systematic Metaphysics

Published in print July 2010 | ISBN: 9780199590612
Published online September 2010 | e-ISBN: 9780191723391 | DOI:

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It is argued that particulars have only a ‘loose and popular’ identity over time (Bishop Butler), ‘perdurantist’ rather than ‘endurantist’. For an unchanging particular we need to go to a four‐dimensional object, a ‘space‐time worm’. Such an object is primarily held together by a causal relation (immanent causation in W.E. Johnson's terminology). Following Russell, an ordinary particular can be described as a ‘causal line’. Particulars are contingent entities.

Keywords: identity; Bishop Butler; perdurantism; endurantism; immanent causation; W.E. Johnson; causal line; Russell

Chapter.  2102 words. 

Subjects: Philosophy of Mind

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