Income is the standard indicator of low-end households’ living standards. With income as the measure, the comparative evidence suggests that economic growth has tended to be the principal driver of improved living standards, though government social programs have been the chief conduit through which growth trickles down. Material deprivation may be a better indicator. With deprivation as the measure, the available evidence suggests an even stronger and more direct impact of social policy.
Keywords: deprivation; hardship; material well-being; poverty; social policy; economic growth
Chapter. 1496 words. Illustrated.
Subjects: Political Economy
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