Retribution and reform, 1566–1571

Judith Pollmann

in Catholic Identity and the Revolt of the Netherlands, 1520‐1635

Published in print September 2011 | ISBN: 9780199609918
Published online January 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191729690 | DOI:

Series: The Past & Present Book Series

Retribution and reform, 1566–1571

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  • Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)


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When Calvinist dissent began to manifest itself aggressively, in 1566, it was not obvious how best to respond to it. Many Catholics believed that the community would damaged by violent action against people who were known as pious kinsfolk and fellow citizens. In their attempts to salvage communal peace, some Catholic elites were prepared to consider tolerating the Calvinists. In France, Catholic priests mobilised laypeople against the Protestants, but most Netherlandish clerics were remarkably timid in their response to the events of 1566. The chapter argues that they were preoccupied with the major ecclesiastical shake-up that the Habsburgs had imposed a few years earlier, while the royal enforcer, the Duke of Alba, in the meantime, signally failed to mobilise Catholics.

Keywords: Catholic violence; clerical leadership; Jesuits; Alba; executions; processions; Spanish army

Chapter.  13001 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)

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