Chapter

Moulding Instruments of Reform: Men and Machinery

Bernard Capp

in England's Culture Wars

Published in print August 2012 | ISBN: 9780199641789
Published online September 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191744228 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199641789.003.0003
Moulding Instruments of Reform: Men and Machinery

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This chapter explores the new regime's efforts to mould the instruments needed to implement reformation measures. The first challenge was to assert its authority over resentful local magistrates, gradually achieved by vigorous intervention in the affairs of county benches and London and other borough corporations. The Presbyterian clergy, at first, hostile and defiant, were tamed and sometimes reconciled, while the New Model Army served as a blunt instrument of reformation. The chapter also explores the character of local magistracy under the Protectorate, and of the Cromwellian church. It ends with the work of the Major-Generals, often effective in galvanizing activity but widely resented. While the regime never possessed adequate machinery or human resources for nationwide reformation, it did enough to facilitate significant advances.

Keywords: instruments of reform; local magistrates; Presbyterian clergy; Major-Generals; Cromwellian church; London; borough corporations

Chapter.  13341 words. 

Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)

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