Holy Alliance Europe, post-Napoleon, was fearful of parliamentary innovation, and paid a price for this in downgrading war-making capacity and commercial development. Britain and the US were seen as impressively commercial constitutionalisms, but sui generis models that could not easily be exported. Liberalism and Carlism in Spain, and ‘Bourgeois Monarchy’ in France are discussed. François Guizot's work in defining the ‘bourgeoisie’ as a political agent is highlighted.
Keywords: François Guizot; Holy Alliance; Carlism; bourgeoisie
Chapter. 5300 words.
Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945)
Full text: subscription required