Chapter

The Ralliement (1890–1898)

Kevin Passmore

in The Right in France from the Third Republic to Vichy

Published in print November 2012 | ISBN: 9780199658206
Published online January 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780191745034 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658206.003.0004
The Ralliement (1890–1898)

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The failure of Boulangism, coupled with fear of socialism and radical republicanism, persuaded the Pope to order monarchists to defend property and religion within the Republic. Monarchists who had ‘rallied’ to the Republic increasingly cooperated with conservative republicans, especially under the leadership of Jules Méline, with whom they shared elitism, parliamentarianism, and an interest in organicist social and political science, notably crowd psychology. Yet tensions concerning the very nature of the social order that was to be defended undermined this alliance, which anyway barely extended into the country. Moreover, the Pope's simultaneous endorsement of democracy and Social Catholicism provoked the emergence of Christian Democracy, which combined social radicalism with militant religiosity. Christian Democrats attacked moderate republicans and Ralliés for social conservatism and for their weak defence of Catholic interests. Increasingly, Christian democrats and monarchists used anti-Semitism to attack the Republic, thus provoking the Dreyfus Affair.

Keywords: Orleanism; Bonapartism; Legitimism; Royalism; Monarchism; ralliement; Christian democracy; de Mun; Piou; Lamy; antisemitism

Chapter.  14015 words. 

Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945)

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